Change WordPress user roles and capabilities › Forums › How to or FAQ › Can I use Post name instead of Plain ID to lock Post or Pages for users? › Reply To: Can I use Post name instead of Plain ID to lock Post or Pages for users?
You can use any permalink settings. A fact that you can use post/page ID to restrict its editing for user or role does not prevent to show that post/page to the public with user/SEO friendly permalink.
If you wish to set edit restriction for user automatically, it’s possible via this filter.
You can get current user login, built his landing page slug, find that page ID and return it from this filter as the only page which user is allowed to edit.